Over the past 20 years, the technology of IoT has enabled the creation of an interconnected network of over 20 billion devices across the world. These devices are capable of sensing, transmitting, processing, and receiving vital information over a network that spans across miles. The applications of these data-sharing devices cover sectors ranging from purely production-based industries like manufacturing, oil & gas, and utilities to service-based companies like transportation, healthcare, and hospitality.
However, it is important to note that these devices can only share data when the connection between them is secure. And thatâ€™s what IoT standards and protocols are made for. To facilitate safe and high-speed data transfer among end IoT devices.
There are various IoT protocols that a business can leverage to develop end to end IoT solutions. Nevertheless, each of these standards have distinct features and capabilities, which complex the identification of a protocol suitable for specific use cases. Let us look at 10 of the most promising communication protocols and standards that you can use to build IoT solutions for your requirements.
With its two-way communication, integrated security modules, and services pertaining to both localized and mobile devices, LoRa is the perfect choice for businesses looking for a wide area network for their battery-powered IoT devices.
LoRaWAN is especially useful for long-range transmission of telemetry data among low-powered devices. Its most beneficial feature is its ability to connect millions of end devices at once. Low-powered LoRA gateways collect data from multiple devices and share it at a speed between 0.3 to 50 kbps at large distances.
BLE or Bluetooth Low Energy protocol is generally used for short-range wireless data transmission. Its application is widely seen in wearables, allowing pairing of two or more smart devices. Bluetooth allows quick data transfer between short distances at lower energy consumption and is hence one of the most influential internet of things protocol of the century. However, it can only be used for transferring small files and payloads.
ZigBee protocol is used more for industrial purposes than for commercial use. At a frequency of 2.4 GHz, it transfers data in an industrial environment at smaller rates. ZigBee communication protocol allows the development of secure, scalable, and low-powered end to end IoT solutions for various use cases.
By leveraging the capabilities of IoT language Dotdot, ZigBee protocol can also be used to connect smart devices to work collectively and perform seamless automated tasks.
Cellular network powered by 3G, 4G, or even 5G connectivity is suitable for transmitting information to large distances. Out of all the other IoT standards, it is the best choice for operations that require long-range transmission of large data volumes.
Even though cellular connectivity fits a businessâ€™s needs for long-range data transfer, the fee of using cellular networks is quite high. Moreover, the power consumed by devices working on a cellular network is also quite high.
Developed specifically for a machine to machine interaction, Sigfox comprises the capabilities of both cellular and Wi-Fi protocols. Sigfoxâ€™s Ultra Narrow Band (UNB) can only share low-level data but at a transfer speed of up to 1000 bits per second and with a minimum power consumption of 50 microwatts. This IoT communication protocol is also supported by cloud capabilities and has a range of 3 to 50 km per device, varying as per topographical features.
Z-Wave protocol uses the capabilities of radio-frequency communication to transmit data from one location to another. Generally used for commercial applications, its use has enabled the creation of solutions for smart cities, homes, and offices. With the help of its sub-1GHz band, Z-Wave offers the lowest latency out of all the other IoT standards and protocols.
The frequency of the Z-Wave protocol is around 900 MHz and its range extends up to 30 to 100 meters. It is also compatible with cloud storage and transfers data at a speed of 40 to 100 kb/sec.
G. MQTT IoT
Message Query Telemetry Transport (MQTT) is highly used for remote monitoring. It is effective in obtaining data from multiple far-off located electronic devices and shares it with a centralized platform. The MQTT protocol works due to its three major components namely the subscriber, publisher, and broker. While the data is generated and transmitted by its subscriber mechanism, the publisher is capable of providing information-routing options. The brokerâ€™s job is to ensure the security of the data being transmitted.
DDS is an expandable, high-performance, and real-time M2M interacting IoT standard, which is capable of transferring data to cloud platforms and low-footprint devices. Through its two layers namely DCPS and DLRL, a data distribution service delivers information to a platform in an intuitive manner.
AMQP is an application layer protocol that is designed for middleware environments. It is an internationally recognized protocol that uses its message-oriented architecture to transfer data via its three prime components of Exchange, Message Queue, and Binding. All of these components work collectively to place the parts of the received message in a queue and storing it over a connection facilitated by the binding component.
Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) is generally used by restricted smart gadgets i.e. devices that have a similar grouped community. IoT systems using CoAP are driven by HTTP protocols and uses a protocol UDP (user datagram protocol) for the implementation of lightweight data. Its restful architecture and binary data format make it a perfect fit for applications related to automation, mobile phones, and microcontrollers.
While there are several other IoT protocols as well like NFC, RFID, Thread, and EnOcean; it is important to note that every standard has its distinct specifications and advantages. Studying these specifications is an essential aspect for any company before developing an IoT solution as protocols are responsible for speed, volume, and range of data transmission.
It is better to choose an end to end IoT service provider that can provide seamless IoT solutions using all Internet of Things protocols. Biz4Intellia is one such company that leverages the capabilities of every standard and provide IoT solutions for each protocol. So, what are you waiting for? Click the link to share your requirements and start your IoT journey powered by Biz4Intelliaâ€™s black-box solutions.